With the river Thames as its southern boundary between the Tower of London and London Bridge it’s no surprise that this area was once the heart of London’s maritime trade.
From Roman times through to the 19th century the City waterfront was the Port of London. The Roman waterfront quays, built of timber, stretched from Cannon Street, EC4 in the west to east of the Custom House, EC3
In the reign of Elizabeth I the legal quays were established between London Bridge and Tower Bridge. These quays had a monopoly on the landing or loading of dutiable goods ‐ goods on which taxes had to be paid.
The Pool of London, divided into the Upper and Lower Pools, is the name given to the section of the river Thames that flows between London Bridge and Limekiln Creek in Limehouse. The section of river in EC3 is in the Upper Pool and just to the east of London Bridge you would have found a quay located here from Roman Times.
By the medieval period it was a fish wharf known as the Fresh Wharf and by the 19th century it was handling fruit and general cargos. In the 1930s the wharf was extended and after World War 2 it was renamed New Fresh Wharf. Given its location alongside London Bridge this was one of the best-known wharves in the City.
Other notable quays and wharves located in the area include:
From 1588 all cargoes entering the Port had to be discharged at the designated ‘Legal Quays’ close to the Custom House. On the north bank between London Bridge and Tower Bridge there were twenty individual wharfs.
See Port of London Authority for a detailed account of how the port has been developed over the last 2,000 years.
Today, the part of the river that flows through EC3 between Tower Bridge and London Bridge is largely the preserve of vessels carrying commuters and visitors.
The occasional cruise liner can be seen moored alongside HMS Belfast. City of London waste, along with the waste from several other boroughs, is ferried along the river in sealed containers and loaded onto barges.
As you walk around EC3 there are buildings, memorials and sculpture which underline the importance of the area at the centre of maritime London.
10 Trinity Square was built as the headquarters of the Port of London Authority who occupied the building from the 1920s to the 1970s.
Trinity House, the General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales, Channel Islands and Gibraltar, have been based in the district since 1660. Their first City property was in Water Lane and since 1796 their home has been in Trinity Square.
A Custom House was first recorded in the area in the 14th century. The current Custom House in Lower Thames Street, on the site of the former Wool Quay, has been vacated by Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs as part of the government’s shake up of the department’s office estate. It's future is yet to be detemined. See Save Custom House
Situated in Trinity Square Gardens are the Merchant Marine Memorials recording the names of those who lost their lives in World War 1, World War 2 and the Falklands War.
On the corner of Lloyd’s Avenue and Fenchurch Street stands the home of Lloyd’s Register. Begun in 1760 Lloyd’s Register is a leading international provider of classification, compliance and consultancy services to the marine and offshore industries.
Walking along the riverside, between Tower Bridge and London Bridge, you will come across Three Quays, Sugar Quay, Custom House, and Grant’s Quay.
The East India Company had their headquarters on Leadenhall Street from 1729. It was demolished in 1861. Today, Lloyds of London occupy the site.
On the opposite side of Leadenhall Street stands the Cheesegrater. Formerly this was the site of the P & O Steam Navigation Company. Cunard also used to occupy a building on Leadenhall Street.
The building at 19-21 Billiter Street is to be integrated into the new 40 Leadenhall Street.
The façade is listed so will be saved by the developers but everything behind the façade will be a new build designed by Make Architects.
The name Billiter is the occupational name for a bell-founder, Middle English belleyetere, from Old English belle + geotere.
19-21 Billiter Street was the home of the London Shipping Exchange from 1892 to 1903. The building in Billiter Street dates back to 1865.
The Exchange had been formed at the end of 1891, to represent the interests of shipowners and operators and it was viewed as a competitor to the well-known and long-established Baltic Exchange.
In 1900 a new organisation The Baltic Mercantile & Shipping Exchange Ltd was incorporated which saw the merger of the two exchanges and the 680 members of the London Shipping Exchange were formally elected to the Baltic Exchange.
Above the doors, at either end of the building, are a pair of semi-circular pediments with appropriately adorned with nautical decoration.
Two children, one with a cornucopia across their knee out of which spills produce and the other threading rope through an anchor with the waves of the sea and a sailing vessel behind.