The Monument is situated in Fish Street Hill at the junction of Monument Street. It was built between 1671 and 1677 to commemorate the Great Fire of London which began in a baker’s house in Pudding Lane on 2 September 1666.
The fire was finally extinguished three days later having destroyed the greater part of the City of London.
The fire consumed or severely damaged thousands of houses, hundreds of streets and the City's gates plus public buildings and churches.
The buildings which survived were those built of stone such as St Paul's and the Guildhall.
The Monument was erected to provide a permanent memorial of the Great Fire near the place where it began.
Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of St Paul's Cathedral, and his friend Dr Robert Hooke, provided a design for the Doric column which we now see.
The column contains a cantilevered stone staircase with 311 steps leading to a viewing platform.
This is topped by a drum and a copper urn from which flames can be seen to symbolise the Great Fire.
The Monument is 202 feet high which is the exact distance between it and the site in Pudding Lane where the fire began.
Great views across London can be seen from the top. See a Panorama of London taken from the top of the Monument (Courtesy of Wikipedia).